Incineration

Incineration is a waste treatment process that involves the burning of solid waste in an incinerator. The burning process produces ash, heat and flue gases. Incinerators are very effective in reducing the volume of waste used for landfills and very popular in countries where land is scarce. The waste is usually compressed before being delivered…

Refrigeration

Refrigeration is defined as the science of providing and maintaining temperature below that of atmospheric temperature. It means continuous extraction of heat from a body which is already below atmospheric temperature. Refrigeration involves cooling a space, substance or system to lower its temperature or maintain that temperature below its ambient temperature. Energy in the form…

Stern Tubes

The stern tube is a hollow tube located at the lower stern part of the ship carrying the tail shaft and connecting it to the propeller,bearing for the tail shaft, lubrication arrangement and sealing arrangement. The propeller shaft or tail shaft is supported in a stern tube bearing. The bearing being at the end of…

Deep Submergence Rescue Vehicles

A Deep Submergence Rescue Vehicle or DSRV is a marine vessel used for rescuing crew from downed submarines and other clandestine missions. These are specialized vessels that require highly skilled professionals to operate these vessels and successfully carry out complex rescue missions. There are a number of countries that operate DSRVs with different designations for…

Heat Exchangers

Heat exchangers are devices used to transfer heat between two or more fluids. They are used for both heating and cooling processes. The fluids may be separated by a solid wall to prevent mixing or may be in direct contact. They are widely used in refrigeration, chemical/ petrochemical processing plants, power stations, refineries and sewage…

Generators.

A generator is a device that converts mechanical energy to electrical energy. The energy generated is used to power our everyday activities in homes, factories, ships. These generators are driven by prime movers such as steam turbines, gas turbines, internal combustion engines or hand cranks which drive the generators to produce electricity. Generators provide nearly…

Steam Turbines.

A steam turbine is a mechanical device that converts thermal energy from steam into mechanical energy. The steam generated from the boiler is heated to a very high temperature and pressure before it passes over the turbines at high speeds. The steam strikes the turbine blades at high speeds causing it to rotate on a…

Hydrogen Fuel Cells.

A fuel cell is a device that converts stored chemical energy into electrical energy. Hydrogen fuel cells utilize hydrogen gas and oxygen gas as fuel. The products of the reaction are water, electricity and heat. This is a stark contrast to internal combustion engines, coal fired power plants and nuclear power plants which all produce…

Four stroke engines.

Four stroke engines are internal combustion engines that require four strokes of the piston to complete one cycle of operation. Strokes refer to the movement of the piston in upward and downward direction. The cycle of operation of the engine are; intake, compression, combustion, exhaust. Intake: During this stage, air is sucked into the cylinder…

Two Stroke Engines.

Two stroke engines are engines that require two strokes of the piston to complete one cycle of operation. In other words, the entire cycle of the engine operation which involves intake, compression, ignition and exhaust take place due to the movement of the piston in two strokes,(ie upward and downward movement of the piston in…